In solid-state lasers, light is usually used as the pump source, and the crystals that can generate laser light are called laser crystals. Laser crystals: matrix and activated ions.
Matrix product supplies a suitable presence and workplace for turned on ions, and also triggered ions complete the laser generation process. The commonly made use of triggering ions are primarily transitioning metal ions, such as chromium, ruby, as well as nickel plasma, and also rare earth steel ions, such as neodymium ions. A mirror coated with a dielectric movie is made use of as a resonator lens, one of which is an all-mirror, and one is a semi-mirror. Various wavelengths of laser will certainly be produced when using various activation ions, different substrate materials, and various wavelengths of light excitation.
The ruby laser output laser wavelength is 694.3 nm, and the photoelectric conversion price is low, just 0.1%. Nonetheless, its long fluorescence life is conducive to power storage and also can result high pulse peak power. The laser produced by a ruby pole with a pen lead’s thickness and the finger’s size can conveniently generate and also punch with the iron sheet. Prior to the a lot more reliable YAG laser development, ruby lasers were commonly utilized for laser cutting and also boring. On top of that, the 694nm light is quickly soaked up by melanin, so ruby laser is also made use of to deal with pigmentary sores (skin areas).
Ti:Sapphire laser crystal
Due to its crystal residential properties, titanium sapphire laser has a large tunable array (tunable wavelength variety). It can result light of 660nm-1200nm wavelength as required. Coupled with the maturity of regularity increasing innovation (which can increase the regularity of light, i.e. halve the wavelength), the Ti: Sapphire wavelength range can be included 330nm-600nm. Titanium sapphire laser has been utilized in femtosecond splitting, nonlinear optical research, white light generation, terahertz wave generation, etc, and also has actually also been applied in clinical charm.
Nd: YAG laser crystal
YAG is short for Yttrium aluminium garnet, which is the present laser crystal matrix with the most superb extensive characteristics. After including neodymium (Nd), it can output 1064nm light, and the optimum continual output power can reach 1000w. Early use inert gas strobe as a laser pump resource, but the strobe pump setting, broad spooky range, and laser gain tool absorption range overlap is poor, and also the heat load is large, resulting in a reduced photoelectric conversion price. So currently, using the LD (laser diode) pump can accomplish high performance, high power, and also lengthy life of the laser.
Nd: YAG laser can treat hemangioma and hinder tumour development. However, the thermal damage of the cells caused by this laser is non-selective. While coagulating the capillary in the tumour, the excess energy will certainly also harm the bordering normal cells, which is very easy to leave scars after surgical treatment. As a result, Nd: YAG laser is more commonly used in surgical procedure, gynaecology, as well as ENT, however less in dermatology.
Yb: YAG laser crystal
Ytterbium (Yb) blended in YAG, can result 1030nm light. The Yb: YAG laser crystal pump wavelength of 941 nm as well as result wavelength very near pump quantum performance can accomplish 91.4%, with the warmth generated by the pump suppressed to 10% or much less (a lot of the energy input right into the output of laser power, a few ended up being warm, indicates that the conversion performance is very high), is an Nd: YAG 25% ~ 30%. It has turned into one of the most eye-catching solid-state laser media. LD pumped high power Yb: YAG solid-state laser has ended up being a brand-new study hotspot as well as is a significant instructions for developing effective and also high-power solid-state laser.
In addition to the above two kinds, YAG can be integrated right into holmium (Ho), Erbium (Er), and so on. Ho: YAG can generate 2097nm and also 2091nm lasers that are safe for human eyes and are primarily appropriate for optical communication, radar and clinical applications. Er: YAG outcomes 2.9 μm light. The human body has a high absorption price of this wavelength, which has terrific application capacity in laser surgical procedure and also vascular surgical procedure.
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